Evidence by PICO

In evaluating the effectiveness of health care interventions, a popular technique is to frame it as a PICO question. Inquiries of this type are essential to evidence-based nursing.


Working with the seasoned veteran emergency/charge RN Mark Wandro, we developed the following PICO question regarding a proposed new way of measuring acuity and using it to improve nurse staffing processes.


  • For the RNs working in an emergency department... (population)
  • Does the use of a real-time workload-tracking tool and acuity monitor... (intervention)
  • Compared with existing methods of acuity and nurse staffing... (comparison)
  • Achieve improved nursing outcomes? (outcome)


We'd like to do this study! Would your hospital be interested? Please get in touch! Let's make nursing better!






Proposed new definition for purposes of nurse staffing:

The number of minutes of nursing care remaining to be done for a patient.

One way to calculate this is to sum the durations of the tasks remaining to be done for the patient.


Nursing Outcomes

What is meant by nursing outcomes (as opposed to patient outcomes)?

Perceptions by nurses of increased job satisfaction, improved workflow, decreased stress, and improved fairness of workload distribution in their nursing practice, and by nursing management as decreased cost and reduced job turnover.